With brown eyes and orange hair, Cesare was acknowledged to be a beautiful child and grew to be a fleet-footed, tall, handsome man of great ambition, much like his father. He was initially groomed for a career in the church and was made bishop of Pamplona at the age of Three years later, after legal studies in Perugia and Pisa and his father's election as Pope Alexander VI in , Cesare was made cardinal and became Alexander's close adviser.
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Cesare's religious vocation was never strong, and he gained a reputation at the papal court for his womanizing, lavish clothing, and hunting parties. However, Giovanni was assassinated in , under mysterious circumstances, and several contemporaries suggested that Cesare was his killer.
With a military career now open to him and his father in need of a trusted captain, on August 17, , Cesare became the first person ever to resign as cardinal. Cesare's alliance with France , reinforced during the course of the Italian Wars, helped lay the foundation for his military political career, as did his father's ability to distribute patronage in ways that favored Cesare.
Cesare's French marriage also secured the assistance of France in Alexander's plan not only to regain control in the rebellious areas of the Papal States but also to create a permanent political domain for the house of Borgia. Cesare's first important victory came in support of Louis XII who had invaded Italy, in , in an effort to press his claims against those of Ferdinand I of Spain regarding the kingdoms of Milan in the north and Naples to the south of Rome.
As captain general of the papal army, Cesare accompanied Louis in his victorious entrance into Milan. Alexander now moved toward the creation of a Borgia domain in northern Italy. In , gifts to the pope associated with the creation of 12 new cardinals gave Alexander enough money to hire the forces of the powerful condottieri mercenary leaders Vitellozzo Vitelli, Gian Paolo Baglioni, Giulio and Paolo Orsini, and Oliverotto da Fermo. Under Cesare's command, these forces served to renew the campaign to expand the Papal States in Romagna.
Cesare's forces went from victory to victory. Giovanni Sforza, the former husband of Cesare's sister Lucrezia , was soon ousted from Pesaro. Pandolfo Malatesta lost Rimini. In May , Cesare was created duke of Romagna.
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Cesare now moved to add the lordship of the western seaport town of Piombino in Tuscany to his new lands. While his condottieri managed the siege of Piombino, Cesare commanded the French troops in the sieges of Naples and Capua south of the Papal States. On June 24, , his troops successfully stormed Capua, causing the fall of the Spanish power in southern Italy.
In June , he set out for the region of Marche on Italy's east coast, southeast of Romagna, where he was able to capture the towns of Urbino and Camerino without a fight. Cesare's next step would be Bologna, the key city of Romagna.
However, several of his condottieri, who feared Cesare's unbridled power, now set up a plot against him. His commanders Guidobaldo da Montefeltro and Giovanni Maria da Varano returned to Urbino and Camerino and Fossombrone and led a coalition of forces in revolt. Overview All states, all powers, that have held and hold rule over men have been and are either republics or principalities. Principalities are either hereditary, in which the family has been long established; or they are new.
The new are either entirely new, as was Milan to Francesco Sforza, or they are, as it were, members annexed to the hereditary state of the prince who has acquired them, as was the kingdom of Naples to that of the King of Spain. Such dominions thus acquired are either accustomed to live under a prince, or to live in freedom; and are acquired either by the arms of the prince himself, or of others, or else by fortune or by ability.
Product Details. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. Diplomatic Missions Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer Niccolo di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance.
Heralded as one of the founders of modern political science, and more specifically political ethics, he was for many View Product. El Principe. James Longstreet.
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